Literature, Language, and Life



David Lodge says, “The most important single decision novelist has to make, for it fundamentally affects the way readers will respond, emotionally and morally, to the fictional characters and their actions.” (Page 26) Single point of view lodge’s the readers to emphasizes and feel what the narrator is saying and what is he trying to convey

“A True Story, Repeated Word for Word as I Heard It” The perspective on Aunt Rachel provided by Twain is surprising. When the white narrator asks Aunt Rachel “ how is it that you’ve lived sixty years and never had any trouble” (page 47). She replies, she replied with the acceptance of the way that life has treated her. Even though she saw her kids been sold, and that is the horrible day for mother to be in. she moves on. It shows the ignorance white upper class the history and troubles of other people. Mark Twain emphasize on Aunt Rachel’s perspective to the upper class

Lodge’s main point says, “There is in fact a certain enhancement of intensity and immediacy to be gained by restricting the narrative to single point of view”. Point of views intensifies and more clear if it has first-person view. Also, we would only see his/ her feelings, and how he acts.

In Eve’s diary: it is told from a woman’s first-person. Every day she discovers new things, and learns about the nature. Eve finds her-self in a romantic relationship at first, then Adam keeps ignoring her. Eve thinks that he does not appreciate the things that she is doing for him. Eve said “ I told him my name, hoping it would interest him. But he did not care for it” (Page 203) This shows how Adam is ignoring Eve. In Adam’s diary: In Adam’s diary all he does is complain about Eve each day. He calls Eve the new creature. The new creature always follows Adam wherever he goes. For instance, “ I escaped last Tuesday night, and traveled two days, and built me another shelter, in a secluded place, and obliterated my tracks as well as I could, but she hunted me out by means of a beast” (page 123) These give us the two perspectives on Eve and Adam. When Eve found Adam she goes out of her way just to make Adam happy. However, when Adam finds Eve he calls her “ the new creature with a long hair” this shows the difference of the perspective on each other. These two stories complements each other to complete of expressing of their love.

David Lodge says, “There is no rule or regulation that says a novel may not shift it’s point of view whenever the writer chooses; but if it is not done according to some aesthetic plan or principle, the readers involvement, the reader’s “production” of the meaning of the text will be disturbed” (Page 28) The writer makes it two stories to get what the writer is trying to say.

The story of the bad boy criticizes the Sunday school church. Jim always gets into trouble and does bad things and he always finds a way to get out of the situation. For example, “ Once he stole the teacher’s penknife, and he was afraid it would be found out, and he would get whipped, he slopped it into George Wilson’s cap” (page 12) The Sunday school church teaches kids how to be civilized people. Jim does is what the opposite of what Sunday school books tell him to do. The story of the good boy also criticizes about the Sunday school church. Jacob obeys his parents, never lies etc. for example, “ he always obeyed his parents, no matter how absurd and unreasonable their demands were;” (page 29). Then, “ whatever this boy did, he got into trouble” (Page 31) Jacob always reads his books. In the Sunday school book it says every good deed will be rewarded in the future. Mark twain splits it into two stories to make it more clearly to the readers, and to get the idea of what the writer trying to say.


Works Cited

Lodge, David. The art of fiction. Vintage, 2011.Twain, Mark. The best short stories of Mark Twain. Edited by Lawrence I. Berkove, Modern Library, 2004.


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